Menopause: Symptoms, Causes and Treatment

Menopause is a natural stage in the life of every woman, marking the definitive cessation of menstruation and reproductive capacity. Although it is a normal physiological process, it can be accompanied by a series of symptoms and changes in the body that can affect the quality of life of women. In this article, we’ll explore in detail the symptoms, causes, and treatment options of menopause, as well as some strategies to better cope with this stage.

What is Menopause and what are its causes?

Menopause is the time when a woman stops menstruating and is therefore no longer able to conceive. It usually occurs between the ages of 45 and 55, although age can vary. The underlying cause of menopause is the gradual decrease in the production of reproductive hormones, such as estrogen and progesterone, by the ovaries. This process marks the end of the menstrual cycle and the transition to a new stage of life.

Menopause can be divided into three stages:

  • Perimenopause: It is the period leading up to menopause itself, in which the ovaries begin to produce fewer hormones. This can occur years before actual menopause and is marked by menstrual irregularities and mild symptoms.
  • Menopause: It is officially established when a woman has gone 12 consecutive months without menstruating. At this point, levels of reproductive hormones have decreased significantly.
  • Postmenopause: It is the period that follows menopause and covers the rest of a woman’s life. Symptoms may persist, but in general, hormone levels remain low.

Menopause Symptoms: Beyond Hot Flashes

Menopause is associated with a variety of physical, emotional and cognitive symptoms. While symptoms can vary widely among women, some of the most common include:

Hot flashes and night sweats: These are perhaps the most well-known symptoms of menopause. Hot flashes are waves of intense heat that can be accompanied by sweating and redness of the skin. Night sweats can disrupt sleep.

Changes in sleep pattern: Many women experience difficulty falling asleep or maintaining it during the night. This can lead to fatigue and affect mood.

Changes in mood: Menopause can also be associated with emotional changes, such as irritability, anxiety, depression, and changes in self-esteem.

Vaginal dryness: Decreased estrogen levels can lead to vaginal dryness, which can cause discomfort during sexual intercourse

Changes in bone health: Decreased estrogen levels can affect bone density, increasing the risk of osteoporosis and fractures.

Cognitive problems: Some women report difficulties in concentration and memory during menopause, although the exact relationship between menopause and cognition is still not completely clear.

Weight gain: Many women notice weight gain during menopause, especially around the abdomen. This may be due to hormonal changes and decreased metabolism.

Treatments and Management Strategies

Fortunately, there are a number of treatments and management strategies that can help women cope with menopausal symptoms and improve their quality of life. It is important to note that not all treatments are suitable for all women, and choosing a treatment approach should be discussed with a healthcare professional. Some options include:

Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT): HRT involves the administration of synthetic hormones, such as estrogen and progesterone, to compensate for the decline in natural hormones. It can be effective in relieving severe menopausal symptoms, but it also carries certain risks and side effects. Therefore, the decision to opt for HRT should be individualized and discussed with a doctor.

Bioidentical Hormone Therapy: These are hormones that are manufactured to be identical to those produced by the body. Some women prefer this option because of its natural origin, although long-term safety and efficacy are still debated.

Non-Hormonal Medications: Some medications, such as antidepressants and blood pressure medications, have been shown to help with symptoms such as hot flashes and mood swings.

Supplements and Natural Remedies: Some women turn to herbal supplements such as soy, red clover, and  black cohosh to relieve symptoms. However, the efficacy of these supplements is not fully supported by scientific evidence and their safety may be questionable.

Lifestyle Changes: Maintaining a healthy lifestyle can make a big difference in the menopause experience. This includes maintaining a balanced diet, exercising regularly, reducing stress, and avoiding tobacco and alcohol.

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT): CBT can help women manage the emotional and cognitive changes associated with menopause by providing tools to cope with stress and anxiety.

Sex Therapy: If vaginal dryness and discomfort during sex are a problem, sex therapy may be beneficial in addressing these issues and improving intimacy.

Menopause as a New Stage of Life

Despite the challenges that can arise during menopause, it is important to recognize that it also marks a new stage in a woman’s life. It can be an opportunity to focus on yourself, embrace positive lifestyle changes, and enjoy the freedom of not having to deal with monthly menstruation. Staying positive and seeking medical and emotional support when needed can make all the difference in how a woman experiences menopause.


Menopause is a natural phase in women’s lives that marks the end of reproductive capacity. Although it may be accompanied by uncomfortable symptoms and changes in health, there are treatment options and management strategies that can relieve these symptoms and improve quality of life. The key is to make informed decisions and work collaboratively with healthcare professionals to find the right approach for each individual. With the right support and a positive attitude, menopause can be embraced as a new and empowering stage of life.

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