Female Infertility: Factors Affecting Female Fertility

As we explore the factors that can affect female fertility, it is critical to understand how age and ovarian reserve can play a crucial role in the ability to conceive. In this article, we will delve into these two factors and their impact on fertility. Join us as we explore in detail the key aspects of female fertility and how these factors can influence the path to motherhood.

Table of Contents

How does age influence female fertility?

Age is a determining factor in female fertility. As women age, their fertility decreases due to natural changes in the body. Decreased fertility is related to the quality and quantity of eggs available. From about age 35, the quantity and quality of eggs gradually decrease, which can make conception difficult and increase the risk of complications during pregnancy.

As a woman approaches age 40, ovarian reserve decreases further, meaning fewer eggs are available for fertilization. In addition, the eggs that remain may have a greater propensity for chromosomal abnormalities, which increases the risk of miscarriages and genetic abnormalities in the fetus.

Fertility decline with age may also be related to changes in the uterine environment, such as a less receptive uterine lining and a decrease in cervical mucus quality, making it difficult for sperm to move and survive.

How does ovarian reserve influence female fertility?

Ovarian reserve refers to the quantity and quality of eggs a woman has stored in her ovaries. Ovarian reserve assessment is critical to understanding a woman’s individual fertility and can help predict response to fertility treatments.

Ovarian reserve decreases with age, but can also be affected by other factors, such as diseases, surgeries or medical treatments. Ovarian reserve can be assessed by hormonal and imaging tests, such as antral follicle count and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels. These tests provide information about the quantity and quality of the remaining eggs and can help determine the most appropriate treatment options.

Importantly, ovarian reserve is individual and can vary significantly from woman to woman. Some women may have a low ovarian reserve early in their reproductive life, while others may maintain an adequate ovarian reserve even at older ages.

Additional factors affecting female fertility

In addition to age and ovarian reserve, there are other factors that can influence female fertility. These can include underlying health conditions, such as endocrine diseases, ovulatory disorders, or structural problems in the reproductive system. It is also important to consider lifestyle, such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, stress and obesity, which can negatively affect fertility.

Diseases such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), endometriosis, and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) can cause ovulatory dysfunction, blockages in the fallopian tubes, and damage to reproductive tissues, making conception difficult.

Lifestyle also plays an important role in female fertility. Smoking can affect ovarian function and egg quality, while excessive alcohol consumption can interfere with ovulation and increase the risk of miscarriage. Chronic stress can disrupt hormone levels and affect ovulation, and obesity can throw hormone levels off balance and make conception difficult.


Age and ovarian reserve are critical factors to consider when assessing female fertility. If you’re planning to conceive in the future, it’s important to be informed about these factors and consult a medical professional to get an accurate assessment of your individual fertility. Remember that every woman is unique and there can be variations in fertility. Maintaining a healthy lifestyle, addressing underlying health conditions, and seeking medical support when needed are important steps to maximizing your chances of conceiving.

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